This page contains selected publications that used CompuCell3D. While we try to keep this page updated some publications might be missing. If you want your CompuCell3D-based publication to be displayed here, please e-mail us ( )

For list of Ph.D. and Master theses completed using CC3D please click here.

How to cite CompuCell3D

Multi-Scale Modeling of Tissues Using CompuCell3DM. Swat, Gilberto L. Thomas, Julio M. Belmonte, A. Shirinifard, D. Hmeljak, J. A. Glazier, Computational Methods in Cell Biology, Methods in Cell Biology 110: 325-366 (2012)



  1. "Cell Modeling in Jupyter Notebook using CompuCell3D" Trinity Chung, T.J. Sego, James A. Glazier. Journal of Advanced Technological Education (J ATE), Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan. 30, 2023. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.7600786..


  1. "YOLO2U-NET: DETECTION-GUIDED 3D INSTANCE SEGMENTATION FOR MICROSCOPY." Amirkoushyar Ziabari, Derek C. Rose, Abbas Shirinifard, and David Solecki. arXiv:2207.06215v1 [eess.IV] 13 Jul 2022.

  2. "The Reaction-Diffusion Theory Of Morphogenesis." Cierra Tinson, Honors Thesis, University of Rochester, [2022].

  3. "Exploring Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ to Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Transitions Using Energy Minimization Principles." Vivek M. Sheraton and Shijun Ma.  In: Groen, D., de Mulatier, C., Paszynski, M., Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V., Dongarra, J.J., Sloot, P.M.A. (eds) Computational Science – ICCS 2022. ICCS 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 13350. Springer, Cham.

  4. "Mechanically primed cells transfer memory to fibrous matrices for persistent invasion." José Almeida, Jairaj Mathur, Ye Lim Lee, Bapi Sarker, Amit Pathak. BioRxiv, Posted May 02, 2022. doi:

  5. "The modeling study of the effect of morphological behaviors of extracellular matrix fibers on the dynamic interaction between tumor cells and antitumor immune response." Guanjie Jia, Hao Yang, Kaiqun Wang, Di Huang, Weiyi Chen, Yanhu Shan. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering. 2022: e3633. DOI: 10.1002/cnm.3633.

  6. "A mathematical model to study the impact of intra-tumour heterogeneity on anti-tumour CD8+ T cell immune response.". Leschiera, Emma, Tommaso Lorenzi, Shensi Shen, Luis Almeida, and Chloe Audebert. Journal of Theoretical Biology (2022): 111028.

  7. Matrix-driven jamming dynamics mediates transition of ovarian cancer spheroids to stable morphologies. Tavishi Dutt, Jimpi Langthasa, U Monica, Prosenjit Sen, Ramray Bhat bioRxiv 2022.02.09.479678; doi:

  8. Modelling Direct and Indirect Effects of Radiation: Experimental, Clinical and Environmental Implications. Brüningk, S.C., Powathil, G.G. (2022). In: Wood, M.D., Mothersill, C.E., Tsakanova, G., Cresswell, T., Woloschak, G.E. (eds) Biomarkers of Radiation in the Environment. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology. Springer, Dordrecht.

  9. Shape–velocity correlation defines polarization in migrating cell simulations. Fortuna, Gabriel C. Perrone, François Graner, Rita M.C. de Almeida. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Volume 587, 2022, 126511, ISSN 0378-4371,

  10. Multiscale Model of Antiviral Timing, Potency, and Heterogeneity Effects on an Epithelial Tissue Patch Infected by SARS-CoV-2. Ferrari Gianlupi, J.; Mapder, T.; Sego, T.J.; Sluka, J.P.; Quinney, S.K.; Craig, M.; Stratford, R.E., Jr.; Glazier, J.A. Viruses 2022, 14, 605.

  11. Parameterized Computational Framework for the Description and Design of Genetic Circuits of Morphogenesis Based on Contact-Dependent Signaling and Changes in Cell–Cell Adhesion. Calvin Lam*, Sajeev Saluja, George Courcoubetis, Dottie Yu, Christian Chung, Josquin Courte, and Leonardo Morsut* Cite this: ACS Synth. Biol. 2022, 11, 4, 1417–1439 Publication Date:April 1, 2022


  1. "Mathematical and Computational Modelling of the Self-Organisation of Multicellular Tissues." Madeleine Fraser (2021). Honours Thesis, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland.

  2. "Estudo de Fatores Biológicos em Modelo Computacional no Desenvolvimento de Tecido Ósseo em Ambiente scaffold-free." Júlia G. Blahun, Bruna M. Manzini, Izaque A. Maia, Pedro Y. Noritomi, Jorge V. L. da Silva. XXIII Jorrnada de Iniciação Cienttífica do CTI Renato Archer -- JICC´2021 PIIIC//CNPq//CTI -- Outubro de 2021 – Campinas – São Pallo.

  3. "Análise in silico da influência de marcadores biológicos para o desenvolvimento de tecido ósseo em ambiente scaffold-free." Bianca C. dos Santos, Pedro A. Noritomi, Jorge V.L. Silva, Bruna M. Manzini, and Izaque A. Maia. XXIII Jornada de Iniciação Científica do CTI Renato Archer - JICC´2021 PIBIC/CNPq/CTI - Outubro de 2021 – Campinas – São Paulo.

  4. "Matrix adhesion and remodeling diversifies modes of cancer invasion across spatial scales." Durjay Pramanik, Mohit Kumar Jolly, Ramray Bhat. J Theor Biol. [2021] Sep 7;524:110733. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2021.110733. PMID:33933478.

  5. "Heterogeneity in 2,6-Linked Sialic Acids Potentiates Invasion of Breast Cancer Epithelia." Dharma Pally, Durjay Pramanik, Shahid Hussain, Shreya Verma, Anagha Srinivas, Rekha V. Kumar, Arun Everest-Dass, and Ramray Bhat. ACS Cent. Sci. [2021], 7, 1, 110–125, January 3, 2021.

  6. A multiscale cell‐based model of tumor growth for chemotherapy assessment and tumor‐targeted therapy through a 3D computational approach.Jafari Nivlouei, S., Soltani, M., Shirani, E., Salimpour, M. R., Travasso, R., & Carvalho, J. (2022). Cell proliferation, 55(3), e13187

  7. Negative Feedback Loop and Transcription Factor Cooperation Regulate Zonal Gene Induction by 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin in the Mouse Liver. Yang Y, Filipovic D, Bhattacharya S. Hepatol Commun. 2021 Nov 2. doi: 10.1002/hep4.1848. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34726355.

  8. Effects of combined chemotherapeutic drugs on the growth and survival of cancerous tumours– an in-silico study Prerna Kaura, Tanya Mishra, Nishith Verma, Indranil Saha Dalal, Vivek Sheraton. Journal of Computational Science, 2021 54, 2021, 101421, ISSN 1877-7503,

  9. A multiscale multicellular spatiotemporal model of local influenza infection and immune response. Sego TJ, Mochan ED, Ermentrout GB, Glazier JA. J Theor Biol. 2021 Sep 27;532:110918. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2021.110918. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34592264; PMCID: PMC8478073.

  10. Shape-velocity correlation defines polarization in migrating cell simulations Thomas GL, Fortuna I, Perrone GC, Graner F, de Almeida RMC. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. 2021 Oct 12; doi: 10.1016/j.physa.2021.126511.

  11. Generation of multicellular spatiotemporal models of population dynamics from ordinary differential equations, with applications in viral infection Sego TJ, Aponte-Serrano JO, Gianlupi JF, Glazier JA. . BMC Biol. 2021 Sep 8;19(1):196. doi: 10.1186/s12915-021-01115-z. PMID: 34496857.

  12. The environment topography alters the way to multicellularity in Myxococcus xanthus - Ramos CH, Rodríguez-Sánchez E, Del Angel JAA, Arzola AV, Benítez M, Escalante AE, Franci A, Volpe G, Rivera-Yoshida N. Sci Adv. 2021 Aug 25;7(35):eabh2278. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abh2278. PMID: 34433567; PMCID: PMC8386931.

  13. Cell-scale biophysical determinants of cell competition in epithelia - Daniel Gradeci, Anna Bove, Giulia Vallardi, Alan R Lowe, Shiladitya Banerjee, and Guillaume Charras. eLife. 2021; 10: e61011. Published online 2021 May 20. doi: 10.7554/eLife.61011

  14. Combined heterogeneity in cell size and deformability promotes cancer invasiveness - Asadullah, Kumar S, Saxena N, Sarkar M, Barai A, Sen S. J Cell Sci. 2021 Apr 1;134(7):jcs250225. doi: 10.1242/jcs.250225. PMID: 33602741. For an interview with the authors see here.

  15. Cluster Size Distribution of Cells Disseminating from a Primary Tumor - Mrinmoy Mukherjee, Herbert Levine. BioRxiv. doi:

  16. Supracellular organization confers directionality and mechanical potency to migrating pairs of cardiopharyngeal progenitor cells - Yelena Y. Bernadskaya, Haicen Yue, Calina Copos, Lionel Christiaen, Alex Mogilner. BioRxiv. doi:

  17. A Cellular Potts energy-based approach to analyse the influence of the surface topography on single cell motility - Thenard T, Catapano A, Mesnard M, Allena R. J Theor Biol. 2021 Jan 21;509:110487. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110487. Epub 2020 Sep 16. PMID: 32949589.

  18. Computational Modelling of Nephron Progenitor Cell Movement and Aggregation during Kidney Organogenesis - Pauli Tikka, Moritz Mercker, Ilya Skovorodkin, Ulla Saarela, Seppo Vainio, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, James P. Sluka, James A. Glazier, Anna Marciniak-Czochra, Franz Schaefer. BioRxiv. doi:

  19. Fenômenos estocásticos em migração celular: teoria, experimentos e simulações (Stochastic phenomena in single cell migration: theory, experiments, and simulations) - Rita M.C. de Almeida. Seção Especial • Rev. Bras. Ensino Fís. 43 (Suppl 1). 2021.

  20. Heterogeneity in 2,6-Linked Sialic Acids Potentiates Invasion of Breast Cancer Epithelia - Pally D, Pramanik D, Hussain S, Verma S, Srinivas A, Kumar RV, Everest-Dass A, Bhat R. ACS Cent Sci. 2021 Jan 27;7(1):110-125. doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.0c00601. Epub 2021 Jan 4. PMID: 33532574; PMCID: PMC7844859.

  21. The environment topography alters the transition from single-cell populations to multicellular structures in Myxococcus xanthus - Karla C. Hernández Ramos, Edna Rodríguez-Sánchez, Juan Antonio Arias del Angel, Alejandro V. Arzola, Mariana Benítez, Ana E. Escalante, Alessio Franci, Giovanni Volpe, Natsuko Rivera-Yoshida. BioRxiv. doi:

  22. A useful review of methods, including CC3D: Computational Models and Simulations of Cancer Metastasis - Anvari, S., Nambiar, S., Pang, J. et al. Arch Computat Methods Eng (2021).

  23. Run for your life: an integrated virtual tissue platform for incorporating exercise oncology into immunotherapy - Serrano JA, Hagar A. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2021 Jul;70(7):1951-1964. doi: 10.1007/s00262-020-02790-7. Epub 2021 Jan 8. PMID: 33416943.

  24. Position of the Kenzan Method in the Space-Time of Tissue Engineering - Moldovan N.I. (2021) In: Nakayama K. (eds) Kenzan Method for Scaffold-Free Biofabrication. Springer, Cham.

  25. Matrix adhesion and remodeling diversifies modes of cancer invasion across spatial scales - Pramanik D, Jolly MK, Bhat R. J Theor Biol. 2021 Sep 7;524:110733. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2021.110733. Epub 2021 Apr 30. PMID: 33933478.

  26. Physical Forces Influence the Self-organization of the Leader Cell Formation During Collective Cell Migration - M. Pan, Y. Yang and L. Liu. 2021 IEEE 16th International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS), 2021, pp. 1923-1926, doi: 10.1109/NEMS51815.2021.9451315.

  27. Multiscale modeling in disease - Ashlee N. FordVersyp. Current Opinion in Systems Biology. In press. Available online 8 May 2021.

  28. Multiscale modeling of tumor growth and angiogenesis: Evaluation of tumor-targeted therapy - Jafari Nivlouei S, Soltani M, Carvalho J, Travasso R, Salimpour MR, Shirani E. PLoS Comput Biol. 2021 Jun 23;17(6):e1009081. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009081. PMID: 34161319.

  29. A Mechanical Model of Early Somite Segmentation - Adhyapok, P., Piatkowska, A.M, Norman, M.J, Clendenon, S.G, Stern, C.D, Glazier, J.A, Belmonte, J.M, ISCIENCE (2021), in press. doi:

  30. Generating Agent-Based Multiscale Multicellular Spatiotemporal Models from Ordinary Differential Equations of Biological Systems, with Applications in Viral Infection - T.J. Sego, Josua Aponte-Serrano, Juliano Ferrari Gianlupi and James A. Glaizer, DOI: 10.1101/2021.01.28.428647. Jan 29, 2021. Preprint in bioRxiv.

  31. Biofabrication of spheroids fusion-based tumor models: computational simulation of glucose effects. Bustamante DJ, Basile EJ, Hildreth BM, Browning NW, Jensen SA, Moldovan L, Petrache HI, Moldovan NI. Biofabrication. 2021 Jan 26. doi: 10.1088/1758-5090/abe025. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33498017

  32. Development of a coupled simulation toolkit for computational radiation biology based on Geant4 and CompuCell3D. Liu R, Higley KA, Swat MH, Chaplain MAJ, Powathil GG, Glazier JA. Phys Med Biol. 2021 Feb 11;66(4):045026. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/abd4f9. PMID: 33339019


  1. "Development Of Tools to Accelerate And Advance Modeling Disease Progression." Steven Macrae Ruggiero. PhD Thesis, Oklahoma State University, 2020.

  2. "Somite Division and New Boundary Formation by Mechanical Strain."Ben K.A. Nelemans, Manuel Schmitz, Hannan Tahir, Roeland M.H. Merks, and Theodoor H. Smit. iScience, Volume 23, Issue 4, [2020], 100976,ISSN 2589-0042,

  3. CompuCell3D Simulations Reproduce Mesenchymal Cell Migration on Flat Substrates. Fortuna I, Perrone GC, Krug MS, Susin E, Belmonte JM, Thomas GL, Glazier JA, de Almeida RMC. Biophys J. 2020 Jun 2;118(11):2801-2815. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2020.04.024. Epub 2020 Apr 30. PMID: 32407685

  4. Multiscale modelling of motility wave propagation in cell migration - Hamid Khataee, Andras Czirok, and Zoltan Neufeld, Scientific Reports. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-63506-6, (2020).

  5. Dynamics of nevus development implicate cell cooperation in the growth arrest of transformed melanocytes - Ruiz-Vega, Rolando, et al., Elife. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.61026, (2020).

  6. A modular framework for multiscale, multicellular, spatiotemporal modeling of acute primary viral infection and immune response in epithelial tissues and its application to drug therapy timing and effectiveness - T.J. Sego, Josua Aponte-Serrano, Juliano Ferrari Gianlupi, Sam Heaps, Kira Breithaupt, Lutz Brusch, et al., PLoS Computational Biology. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008451, (2020).

  7. Mechanisms of endothelial cell coverage by pericytes: computational modelling of cell wrapping and in vitro experiments – Kei Sugihara, et al., Journal of the Royal Society Interface. DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2019.0739, (2020).


  1. "In Silico Multiscale Modeling of Endothelial Cell Mechanobiology in a Tumor Microenvironment." Mukti Subhash Chowkwale. Masters Thesis, State University of New York at Binghamton, 2019.

  2. "Prediction and quantification of bacterial biofilm detachment using Glazier–Graner–Hogeweg method based model simulations." M.V. Sheraton, V.R. Melnikov, and P.M.A. Sloot. Journal of Theoretical Biology Volume 482, 7 December 2019, 109994.

  3. "The Morphogen Circuit Builder & Compiler." Bryan Bartley, Brian Basnight, Jesse Tordoff, Jacob Beal1, and Ron Weiss. IWBDA 2019, July 2019, Cambridge, UK.

  4. "Cellular-based Computational Model of hMSC Differentiation into Neuronal Lineage on Nanofibrous PCL- Graphene Scaffolds." Pegi Haliti. Poster (2019).

  5. "Role of aggregate size, multistability and communication in determining cell fate and patterning in M. xanthus". Juan A. Arias Del Angel, Natsuko Rivera-Yoshida, Ana E. Escalante, León Patricio Martínez-Castilla, Mariana Benítez. BioRxiv Posted May 04, 2019. doi:

  6. A hybrid discrete–continuous model of metastatic cancer cell migration through a remodeling extracellular matrix - Edalgo Nguyen, Yen T., Anya L. Zornes, and Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, AIChE Journal. DOI: 10.1002/aic.16671, (2019).

  7. Metabolic reprogramming dynamics in tumor spheroids: Insights from a multicellular, multiscale model - Mahua Roy and Stacey D. Finley, PLoS Computational Biology. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007053S, (2019).

  8. Model-based assessment of the Role of Uneven Partitioning of Molecular Content on Heterogeneity and Regulation of Differentiation in CD8 T-cell Immune Responses – Simon Girel, et al, Frontiers in immunology. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00230, (2019).

  9. An Interplay Between Reaction-Diffusion and Cell-Matrix Adhesion Regulates Multiscale Invasion in Early Breast Carcinomatosis - Pally D, Pramanik D, Bhat R., Front Physiol. 2019 Aug 13;10:790. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00790. eCollection 2019.

  10. Agent-Based Modelling to Delineate Spatiotemporal Control Mechanisms of the Stem Cell Niche" - Mines R, Chen KY, Shen X., Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1975:3-35. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9224-9_1. PMID: 31062303

  11. Methods of Computational Analysis in Kidney Development - Tikka P, Schaefer F., Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1926:235-246. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9021-4_19.

  12. An Interplay Between Reaction-Diffusion and Cell-Matrix Adhesion Regulates Multiscale Invasion in Early Breast Carcinomatosis. Pally D, Pramanik D, Bhat R. Front Physiol. 2019 Aug 13;10:790. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00790. eCollection 2019. PMID: 31456688.

  13. A multiscale in silico model of endothelial to mesenchymal transformation in a tumor microenvironment. Chowkwale M, Mahler GJ, Huang P, Murray BT. J Theor Biol. 2019 Nov 7;480:229-240. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.08.012. Epub 2019 Aug 17. PMID: 31430445

  14. Methods of Computational Analysis in Kidney Development. Tikka P, Schaefer F. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1926:235-246. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9021-4_19. PMID: 30742276


  1. Fibroblast state switching orchestrates dermal maturation and wound healing - Emanuel Rognoni, Angela Oliveira Pisco, Toru Hiratsuka, Kalle H Sipilä, Julio M Belmonte, Seyedeh Atefeh Mobasseri, Christina Philippeos, Rui Dilão, Fiona M Watt, Mol Syst Biol (2018)14:e8174,

  2. Rotation of sex combs in Drosophila melanogaster requires precise and coordinated spatio-temporal dynamics from forces generated by epithelial cells - Ernest C. Y. Ho, Juan Nicolas, Abha Ahuja, Rama Singh ,Ellen Larsen, PLoS Comp. Bio.,, (2018).

  3. Computational model of wound healing: EGF secreted by fibroblasts promotes delayed re-epithelialization of epithelial keratinocytes - Vivi Andasari, Dongyuan Lü, Maciej Swat, Shiliang Feng, Fabian Spill, Li Chen, Xiangdong Luo, Muhammad Zaman, Mian Long, Integrative Biology, DOI: 10.1039/C8IB00048D, (2018).

  4. Multicompartment cell-based modeling of confined migration: regulation by cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors - Sandeep Kumar, Alakesh Das and Shamik Sen, Molecular Biology of the Cell, DOI:10.1091/mbc.E17-05-0313, (2018).


  1. Computational Model of Secondary Palate Fusion and Disruption - M. Shane Hutson, Maxwell C.K. Leung, Nancy Baker, Richard M. Spencer, and Thomas B. Knudsen, Chemical Research in Toxicology, DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00350, (2017).

  2. Mathematical modelling of the immune response to cancer - Tough, Iona Kirsten. PhD Thesis, University of Dundee, (2017).

  3. Blood vessel tortuosity selects against evolution of aggressive tumor cells in confined tissue environments: A modeling approach - A. Szabó and R. M. H. Merks, PLOS Comput Biol, vol. 13, no. 7, p. e1005635, Jul. 2017.

  4. Shaping the cell fate - T. N. Sato and R. M. H. Merks, Cell Cycle, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 149–150, Jan. 2017.

  5. Cell-based computational model of early ovarian development in mice - Wear HM, Eriksson A, Yao HH, Watanabe KH. Biol Reprod. 2017 Sep 1;97(3):365-377. doi: 10.1093/biolre/iox089. PMID: 29088396; PMCID: PMC6231088.


  1. Multi-scale modeling of the CD8 immune response. - Barbarroux, L., Michel, P., Adimy, M., Crauste, F. AIP Conference Proceedings 1738, 320002 (2016); doi:

  2. Virtual-Tissue Computer Simulations Define the Roles of Cell Adhesion and Proliferation in the Onset of Kidney Cystic Disease – Julio M. Belmonte, Sherry G. Clendenon, Guilherme M. Oliveira, Maciej H. Swat, Evan V. Greene, Srividhya Jeyaraman, James A. Glazier, and Robert L. Bacallao, Molecular Biology of the Cell 27: 3673-3685 (2016).

  3. Spheroid Formation of Hepatocarcinoma Cells in Microwells: Experiments and Monte Carlo Simulations – Yan Wang, Myung Hee Kim, Seyed R. Tabaei, Jae Hyeok Park, Kyuhwan Na, Seok Chung, Vladimir P. Zhdanov, Nam-Joon Cho, PLoS ONE 11(8): e0161915 (2016).

  4. A Computational Model of Peripheral Photocoagulation for the Prevention of Progressive Diabetic Capillary Occlusion – Thomas J. Gast, Xiao Fu, John Scott Gens, James A. Glazier, Journal of Diabetes Research vol. 2016, Article ID 2508381, 13 pages (2016) doi:10.1155/2016/2508381.

  5. A Liver-Centric Multiscale Modeling Framework for Xenobiotics – James P. Sluka , Xiao Fu, Maciej Swat, Julio M. Belmonte, Alin Cosmanescu, Sherry G. Clendenon, John F. Wambaugh, James A. Glazier, PLoS ONE 11: e0162428 (2016).

  6. IL-2 sensitivity and exogenous IL-2 concentration gradient tune the productive contact duration of CD8+ T cell-APC: a multiscale modeling study – Xuefeng Gao, Christophe Arpin, Jacqueline Marvel, Sotiris A. Prokopiou, Olivier Gandrillon, Fabien Crauste, BMC Systems Biology 10:77 (2016).

  7. Filopodial-Tension Model of Convergent-Extension of Tissues – Julio M. Belmonte, Maciej H. Swat, James A. Glazier, PLoS Comput Biol 12: e1004952 (2016).

  8. Memory of cell shape biases stochastic fate decision-making despite mitotic rounding – Takashi Akanuma, Cong Chen, Tetsuo Sato, Roeland M. H. Merks, Thomas N. Sato, Nature Commun 7: 11963 (2016).

  9. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model – Xiao Fu, John Scott Gens, James A. Glazier, Stephen A. Burns, Thomas J. Gast, PLoS Comput Biol 12: e1004932 (2016).

  10. The Molecular Basis of Radial Intercalation during Tissue Spreading in Early Development – András Szabó, Isidoro Cobo, Sharif Omara, Sophie McLachlan, Ray Keller, Roberto Mayor, Developmental Cell 37: 213–225 (2016).

  11. Bystander effects and their implications for clinical radiation therapy: Insights from multiscale in silico experiments – Gibin George Powathil, Alastair J Munro, Mark Chaplain, Maciej H. Swat, Journal of Theoretical Biology 401: 1-14 (2016).

  12. Spatial Modeling of Drug Delivery Routes for Treatment of Disseminated Ovarian Cancer – Kimberly R. Kanigel Winner, Mara P. Steinkamp, Rebecca J. Lee, Maciej Swat, Carolyn Y. Muller, Melanie E. Moses, Yi Jiang, Bridget S. Wilson, Cancer Research 76(6): 1320–34 (2016).

  13. Proteolytic and non-proteolytic regulation of collective cell invasion: tuning by ECM density and organization – Sandeep Kumar, Aastha Kapoor, Sejal Desai, Mandar M. Inamdar, Shamik Sen, Scientific Reports 6: 19905 (2016).

  14. Modeling the Mammalian Ovary : A Cell-based Computational Model of Early Ovarian Development in Mice and Preliminary Data for A Model of Folliculogenesis in Rhesus Monkeys - Wear, H.M., Masters Thesis, 2016. Oregon Health and Science University.

  15. Computational Screening of Tip and Stalk Cell Behavior Proposes a Role for Apelin Signaling in Sprout Progression - M. M. Palm, M. G. Dallinga, E. van Dijk, I. Klaassen, R. O. Schlingemann, and R. M. H. Merks, PLOS ONE, vol. 11, no. 11, p. e0159478, Nov. 2016.


  1. Experiences in the Use of the Compucell3d in the Career of Biomedical Engineering - Rosa, L., Pareja, D., Perez, F., Domech, D. & Mendez, A. in IFMBE Proceedings 49, 199–200 (2015).

  2. Changing cell behaviours during beetle embryogenesis correlates with slowing of segmentation – A. Nakamoto, S. D. Hester, S. J. Constantinou, W. G. Blaine, A. B. Tewksbury, M. T. Matei, L. M. Nagy, T. A. Williams, Nat Commun 6: 6635 (2015).

  3. Fabrication of Biomimetic Bone Tissue Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Three-Dimensional Constructs Incorporating Endothelial Cells – Jun-Ichi Sasaki, Masanori Hashimoto, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro Itoh, Itsumi Yoshimoto, Takuya Matsumoto, Satoshi Imazato, PLoS ONE 10(6): e0129266 (2015).

  4. Multi-scale modeling of cell survival and death mediated by p53 network: A Systems Pharmacology Framework – Yuan Wang, Zihu Guo, Xuetong Chen, Wenjuan Zhang, Aiping Lu, Yonghua Wang, Molecular BioSystems 11(6): 3011-3021 (2015).

  5. A Neutrophil Phenotype Model for Extracorporeal Treatment of Sepsis – Alexander D. Malkin, Robert P. Sheehan, Shibin Mathew, William J. Federspiel, Heinz Redl, Gilles Clermont, PLoS Comput Biol 11(10): e1004314 (2015).

  6. Development of cell differentiation in the transition to multicellularity: a dynamical modeling approach – Emilio Mora Van Cauwelaert, Juan A. Arias Del Angel, Mariana Benítez, Eugenio M. Azpeitia, Front Microbiol 6: 603 (2015).

  7. 3D Simulations of Wet Foam Coarsening Evidence a Self Similar Growth Regime – Gilberto L. Thomas, Julio M. Belmonte, Francois Graner, James A. Glazier, Rita M.C. de Almeida, Colloids and Surface A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 473:109-114 (2015).

  8. Limited specificity of IRF3 and ISGF3 in the transcriptional innate-immune response to double-stranded RNA – Diana R. Ourthiague, Harry Birnbaum, Niklas Ortenlöf, Jesse D. Vargas, Roy Wollman, Alexander Hoffmann, Journal of Leukocyte Biology 98: 119-128 (2015).

  9. Emergent Stratification in Solid Tumors Selects for Reduced Cohesion of Tumor Cells: A Multi-Cell Model of Tumor Evolution Using CompuCell3D – Maciej Swat, Gilberto Thomas, Abbas Shirinifard, Sherry Clendenon, James Glazier, PLoS ONE 10(6): e0127972 (2015).

  10. Large-scale parameter studies of cell-based models of tissue morphogenesis using CompuCell3D or VirtualLeaf – Margriet Palm, Roeland Merks, In: Nelson, C.M. (ed.), Tissue Morphogenesis. Methods in Molecular Biology , Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Methods Mol Biol 1189: 301-22 (2015).

  11. Modeling of the Urothelium with an Agent Based Approach – Angelo Torelli, Fabian Siegel, Philipp Erben, Markus Gumbel, Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering 9044: 375-385 (2015).

  12. Tip cell overtaking occurs as a side effect of sprouting in computational models of angiogenesis - S. E. M. Boas and R. M. H. Merks, BMC Syst Biol, pp. 1–17, Nov. 2015.


  1. "Experiences in the Use of the Compucell3d in the Career of Biomedical Engineering." Laura E. Cué La Rosa, Diego Alejandro Zottola Pareja, Fidel D. Ruiz Pérez, Guillermo Estrada Domech and Adrián Hernández Méndez. In: Braidot, A., Hadad, A. (eds) VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering CLAIB 2014, Paraná, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. IFMBE Proceedings, vol 49. Springer, Cham.

  2. Physics of Cell Adhesion Failure and Human Diseases - Family, F. Phys. Procedia 57, 24–28 (2014).

  3. Experiences in the Use of the Compucell3d in the Career of Biomedical Engineerin - La Rosa, L., Pareja, D., Pére F., Domech, G., Méndez, A. VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering CLAIB 2014, Paraná, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014 pp 199-202.

  4. The Cell Behavior Ontology: Describing the intrinsic biological behaviors of real and model cells seen as active agents – James P. Sluka, Abbas Shirinifard, Maciej Swat, Alin Cosmanescu, Randy Heiland and James A. Glazier, Bioinformatics 30(16): 2367-74 (2014).

  5. Lattice-Based Model of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Suggests Rules for Breast Cancer Progression to an Invasive State – Eline Boghaert, Derek C. Radisky, Celeste M. Nelson, PLoS Comput Biol 10(12): e1003997 (2014) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003997.

  6. Using Mathematical Modelling as a Virtual Microscope to Support Biomedical Research – Chiara Giverso and Luigi Preziosi, Mathematical Models and Methods for Planet Earth Springer INdAM Series Volume 6, 2014, pp 59-71.

  7. Integrating multi-scale knowledge on cardiac development into a computational model of ventricular trabeculation – Bouke A. de Boer, Jean-François Le Garrec,Vincent M. Christoffels, Sigolène M. Meilhac and Jan M. Ruijter, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine Volume 6, Issue 6, pages 389–397, November/December 2014.

  8. Multiscale modeling of the early CD8 T cell immune response in lymph nodes: an integrative study – SA Prokopiou, L Barbarroux, S Bernard, JMafille, Y Leverrier, C Arpin, J Marvel, O Gandrillon, F Crauste, Computation 2(4): 159-181 (2014).

  9. Somites Without a Clock – Ana S. Dias, I. de Almeida, Julio M. Belmonte, J. A. Glazier, Claudio D. Stern, Science 343: 791-795 (2014).

  10. Dynamics of cell aggregates fusion: Experiments and simulations – Gilberto L. Thomas, Vladimir Mironov, Agnes Nagy-Mehez, José C. M. Mombach, Physica A 395: 247-254 (2014).

  11. Synergy of cell–cell repulsion and vacuolation in a computational model of lumen formation – Sonja E. M. Boas, Roeland M. H. Merks, J. R. Soc. Interface 11(92): 20131049 (2014).

  12. The effects of cell compressibility, motility and contact inhibition on the growth of tumor cell clusters using the Cellular Potts Model – Jonathan F. Li, John Lowengrub, Journal of Theoretical Biology 343: 79-91 (2014).

  13. Advances in Modelling of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition – R. Summers, T. Abdulla, J.-M. Schleich, XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 41: 1225-1228 (2014).

  14. A design principle underlying the paradoxical roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases – Daewon Lee, Minjin Kim & Kwang-Hyun Cho, Scientific Reports 4: 5573 (2014).


  1. Advances in Modelling of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition - Summers, R., Abdulla, T.,Schleich, J.-M. XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013 pp 1225-1228.

  2. Cellular Potts Model - Voß-Böhme, A., Starruß, J. & de Back, W. Encycl. Syst. Biol., Chapter 344, 386–390 (2013). doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9863-7_298.

  3. Agent-Based Virtual Tissue Simulations – Maciej Swat, James A. Glazier, Biomedical Computation Review, Fall 2013 p.28-29.

  4. A Cellular Potts Models Simulating Cell Migration on and in Matrix Environments – Marco Scianna, Luigi Preziosi, Katarina Wolf, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering 10(1), (2013).

  5. Individual Cell-Based Model for In-Vitro Mesothelial Invasion of Ovarian Cancer – C. Giverso, M. Scianna, L. Preziosi, N. Lo Buono, A. Funaro, Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena, DOI:

  6. Cell-Based Multi-Parametric Model of Cleft Progression during Submandibular Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis – Shayoni Ray, Daniel Yuan, Nimit Dhulekar, Basak Oztan, Bülent Yener, Melinda Larsen, PLoS Comput Biol 9(11):e1003319 (2013).

  7. Hyaluronan: A critical regulator of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition during cardiac valve formation – Anne Karine Lagendijk, András Szabo, Roeland M.H. Merks and Jeroen Bakkers, Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine 23(5): 135-142 (2013).

  8. Ovarian Tumor Attachment, Invasion, and Vascularization Reflect Unique Microenvironments in the Peritoneum: Insights from Xenograft and Mathematical Models – Mara P. Steinkamp, Kimberly Kanigel Winner, Bridget S. Wilson, Frontiers in Oncology 3:97 (2013).

  9. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development – Nicole Kleinstreuer, David Dix, Michael Rountree, Nancy Baker, Nisha Sipes, David Reif, Richard Spencer, Thomas Knudsen, PLoS Comput Biol 9(4): e1002996 (2013).

  10. Vascular Networks Due to Dynamically Arrested Crystalline Ordering of Elongated Cells – Margriet M. Palm, Roeland M. H. Merks,. Phyiscal Review E 87: 012725 (2013).

  11. Acute and Fractionated Irradiation Differentially Modulate Glioma Stem Cell Division Kinetics – Xuefeng Gao, J. Tyson McDonald, Lynn Hlatky, Heiko Enderling, Cancer Res March 1, 73; 1481 (2013).


  1. The modeling of lymphangiogenesis in cancer using the Cellular Potts Model - Magdalini, P. 2012. (in Greek).

  2. Progress On Multiscale Representation Of Cardiac Valve Morphogenesis - Summers, R., Abdulla, T. & Schleich, J.-M. XX IMEKO World Congr. 2–5 (2012).

  3. Multiscale Developments of the Cellular Potts Model – Marco Scianna, Luigi Preziosi, Multiscale Model. Simul. 10(2):342–382. (2012).

  4. Adhesion Failures Determine the Pattern of Choroidal Neovascularization in the Eye: A Computer Simulation Study – A. Shirinifard, J. A. Glazier, M. Swat, J. S. Gens, F. Family, Y. Jiang, Hans E. Grossniklaus, PLoS Comput Biol 7(10): e1002155 (2012) [ IU press release, GSU press release ].

  5. Hybrid cellular Potts model for solid tumor growth – M. Scianna, L. Preziosi, in M. Chaplain, J. Batzel, M. Bachar, Eds., New Challenges for Cancer Systems Biomedicine, p.205-224, Springer, (2012).

  6. Searching a multicellular model to tame tumor-induced angiogenesis – Podgorski, G.J., Flann, N.S. Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (CIBCB), 2012 IEEE Symposium on DOI: 10.1109/CIBCB.2012.6217251 , pp. 349-354 (2012).

  7. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition: The roles of cell morphology, labile adhesion and junctional coupling – Tariq Abdulla, Luis Luna-Zurita, José Luis De La Pompa, Jean-Marc Schleich, Ron Summers, Computer Methods And Programs In Biomedicine 111:435-446 (2012).

  8. Modelling: Computing Cancer – N. Savage, Nature 491:S62–S63 (2012).

  9. Multiscale modelling of Notch-mediated lateral induction – Abdulla T., Schleich, J., Summers, R., Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI), IEEE-EMBS International Conference, p. 257 – 260 (2012).

  10. Multi-Scale Modeling of Tissues Using CompuCell3DM. Swat, Gilberto L. Thomas, Julio M. Belmonte, A. Shirinifard, D.Hmeljak, J. A. Glazier, Computational Methods in Cell Biology, Methods in Cell Biology 110: 325-366 (2012).

  11. Integrating Intracellular Dynamics Using CompuCell3D and Bionetsolver: Applications to Multiscale Modelling of Cancer Cell Growth and Invasion – Vivi Andasari, Ryan T. Roper, Maciej H. Swat, Mark A. J. Chaplain, PLoS ONE 7(3): e33726 (2012).

  12. Workflows for parameter studies of multi-cell modeling – Randy Heiland, Maciek Swat, Benjamin Zaitlen, James A. Glazier, Andrew Lumsdaine, Proceedings of the 2010 Spring Simulation Multiconference p. 94 (2012).

  13. Visualizing Cells and their Connectivity Graphs for CompuCell3D – R. Heiland, M. Swat, J. Sluka, B. Zaitlen, A. Shirinifard, G. Thomas, A. Lumsdaine, J. Glazier, 2nd IEEE Symposium on Biological Data Visualization (2012).


  1. Computational modelling of epithelial to mesenchymal transition – T. Abdulla, R. Imms, J.-L. Dillenseger, J.-M. Schleich, R. Summers, IRBM, 32(5):306–310 (2011).

  2. A Robust in Silico Analogue of MDCK Cystogenesis Mimics Growth in Multiple Culture Conditions - Engelberg, J. A., Datta, A., Mostov, K. E. & Hunt, C. A. ADS ’11 Proc. 2011 Work. Agent-Directed Simul. 52–56 (2011).

  3. Emergent networks:A slime mold simulation - Semmler, N. Bachelors Thesis, June 24, 2011.

  4. Progress with a Multiscale Systems Engineering Approach to Cardiac Development - Summers, R., Abdulla, T., Houyel, L. & Schleich, J.-M. Autom. Control. Meas. Electron. Comput. Commun. 52, 49–57 (2011).

  5. 3D Simulation of an in vitro Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition - Summers, R., Abdulla, T., Imms, R. a & Schleich, J.-M. 5th Eur. IFMBE Conf. IFMBE Proc. 37 1287–1290 (2011). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-23508-5_333.

  6. A Multi-cell, Multi-scale Model of Vertebrate Segmentation and Somite Formation – Susan D. Hester, Julio M. Belmonte, J. Scott Gens, Sherry G. Clendenon, James A. Glazier, PLoS Comput Biol 7(10): e1002155 (2011) [ model and a movie are available ].

  7. MDCK Cystogenesis Driven by Cell Stabilization within Computational Analogues – Jesse A. Engelberg, Anirban Datta, Keith E. Mostov, C. Anthony Hunt, PLoS Comput Biol 7(4): e1002030 (2011).

  8. A Multiscale Model for Hypoxia-induced Avascular Tumor Growth – Xuefeng Gao, Mark Tangney, Sabin Tabirca, Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics IPCBEE vol.5 (2011).

  9. Computer Simulations of Cell Sorting Due to Differential Adhesion – Ying Zhang, Gilberto L. Thomas, Maciej Swat, Abbas Shirinifard, James A. Glazier, PLoS ONE 6(10):e24999 (2011).

  10. Towards multiscale systems modeling of endocardial to mesenchymal transition – Abdulla T, Imms, R., Schleich, J., Summers R., Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, p. 449 – 452 (2011).

  11. Coordination of Cell Differentiation and Migration in Mathematical Models of Caudal Embryonic Axis Extension – Nigel C. Harrison, Ruth Diez del Corral, Bakhtier Vasiev, PLoS ONE 6(7):e22700 (2011).


  1. Genetic Algorithms and Their Application to In Silico Evolution of Genetic Regulatory Networks - Knabe, J., Wegner, K., Nehaniv, C., Schilstra, M. Computational Biology, 2010, 673, 297-321.

  2. Modeling Gastrulation in the Chick Embryo: Formation of the Primitive Streak – Bakhtier Vasiev, Ariel Balter, Mark Chaplain, James A. Glazier, Cornelis J. Weijer, PLoS ONE 5(5):e10571 (2010).

  3. Front Instabilities and Invasiveness of Simulated 3D Avascular Tumors – Nikodem J. Popławski, Abbas Shirinifard, Ubirajara Agero, J. Scott Gens, Maciej Swat, James A. Glazier, PLoS ONE 5(5): e10641 (2010).

  4. A Computer Simulation of Long-Range Patterning in the Drosophila Pupal Eye – David Larson , Ruth Johnson, Maciej H. Swat, J. Cordero, James A. Glazier, Ross Cagan, PLoS Comput Bio 6: e1000841 (2010) doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000841.


  1. 3D Multi-Cell Simulation of Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis – Abbas Shirinifard, J. Scott Gens, Benjamin L. Zaitlen, Nikodem J. Popławski, Maciej Swat, James A. Glazier, PLoS ONE 4(10):e7190 (2009).

  2. Mathematical modeling of the capillary-like pattern generated by adrenomedullin-treated human vascular endothelial cells in vitro – Diego Guidolin, Giovanna Albertin, Elisa Sorato, Barbara Oselladore, Alessandra Mascarin, Domenico Ribatti, Dev Dyn 238(8):1951-63 (2009).


  1. Evolution and morphogenesis of differentiated multicellular organisms: autonomously generated diffusion gradients for positional information – J. F. Knabe, C. L. Nehaniv, M. J. Schilstra, Artificial Life XI: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, pp. 321–328. MIT Press, Cambridge (2008).

  2. Simulation of Single-Species Bacterial-Biofilm Growth Using the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg Model and the CompuCell3D Modeling Environment – Nikodem J. Popławski, Abbas Shirinifard, Maciej Swat, James A. Glazier, Mathematical biosciences and engineering 5: 355-388 (2008).

  3. Discovering Novel Cancer Therapies: A Computational Modeling and Search Approach – A. W. Mahoney, B. G. Smith, N. S. Flann, G. J. Podgorski, IEEE conference on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, pp. 233-240 (2008).

  4. Coordinated Action of N-CAM, N-cadherin, EphA4, and ephrinB2 Translates Genetic Prepatterns into Structure during Somitogenesis in Chick – James A. Glazier, Ying Zhang, Maciej Swat, Benjamin Zaitlen, Santiago Schnell, Current Topics in Developmental Biology 81:205-247 (2008).


  1. From Genes to Organisms Via the Cell: A Problem-Solving Environment for Multicellular Development – Trevor Cickovski, Kedar Aras, Maciej Swat, Roeland M. H. Merks, Tilmann Glimm, H. George E. Hentschel, Mark S. Alber, James A. Glazier, Stuart A. Newman, J. A. Izaguirre, Computing in Science and Engineering 9: 50-60 (2007).

  2. Adhesion Between Cells, Diffusion of Growth Factors, and Elasticity of the AER Produce the Paddle Shape of the Chick Limb – Nikodem J. Popławski, Maciej Swat, J. Scott Gens, James A. Glazier, Physica A 373: 521-532 (2007).

  3. A Brief History of the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg Model. Glazier J.A., Balter A., Popławski N.J. (2007) Magnetization to Morphogenesis: In: Anderson A.R.A., Chaplain M.A.J., Rejniak K.A. (eds) Single-Cell-Based Models in Biology and Medicine. Mathematics and Biosciences in Interaction. Birkhäuser Basel

  4. The Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg Model: Extensions, Future Directions, and Opportunities for Further Study. Balter A., Merks R.M.H., Popławski N.J., Swat M., Glazier J.A. (2007) In: Anderson A.R.A., Chaplain M.A.J., Rejniak K.A. (eds) Single-Cell-Based Models in Biology and Medicine. Mathematics and Biosciences in Interaction. Birkhäuser Basel.

  5. The Cellular Potts Model and Biophysical Properties of Cells, Tissues and Morphogenesis. Marée A.F.M., Grieneisen V.A., Hogeweg P. (2007) In: Anderson A.R.A., Chaplain M.A.J., Rejniak K.A. (eds) Single-Cell-Based Models in Biology and Medicine. Mathematics and Biosciences in Interaction. Birkhäuser Basel.


  1. A Framework For Three-Dimensional Simulation of Morphogenesis – Trevor M. Cickovski, Chengbang Huang, Rajiv Chaturvedi, Tilmann Glimm, H. George E. Hentschel, Mark S. Alber, James A. Glazier, Stuart A. Newman, Jesus A. Izaguirre, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (TCBB) 2: 273-288 (2005).

  2. On Multiscale Approaches to Three-Dimensional Modeling of Morphogenesis – R. Chaturvedi, C. Huang, B. Kazmierczak, T. Schneider, J. A. Izaguirre, T. Glimm, H. G. E. Hentschel, S. A. Newman, J. A. Glazier, M. Alber, J. R. Soc. Interface 2: 237-253 (2005).

  3. A Cell-Centered Approach to Developmental Biology – Roeland M.H. Merks, James A. Glazier, Physica A 352: 113-130 (2005).


  1. Dynamical Mechanisms For Skeletal Pattern Formation in the Vertebrate Limb – H. G. E. Hentschel, T. Glimm, J. A. Glazier, Stuart A. Newman, Proc Biol Sci 271(1549): 1713-1722 (2004).

  2. A Hybrid Discrete-Continuum Model for 3D Skeletogenesis of the Vertebrate Limb – R. Chaturvedi, C. Huang, J. A. Izaguirre, Stuart A. Newman, J. A. Glazier, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3305: 543-552 (2004).

  3. CompuCell, a Multi-Model Framework For Simulation of Morphogenesis – J. A. Izaguirre, R. Chaturvedi, C. Huang, T. Cickovski, J. Coffland, G. Thomas, G. Forgacs, M. Alber, G. Hentschel, S. A. Newman, and J. A. Glazier, Bioinformatics 20: 1129-1137 (2004).


  1. Simulation of the differential adhesion driven rearrangement of biological cells. Glazier JA, Graner F. Phys Rev E Stat Phys Plasmas Fluids Relat Interdiscip Topics. 1993 Mar;47(3):2128-2154.


  1. Simulation of biological cell sorting using a two-dimensional extended Potts model. Graner F, Glazier JA. Phys Rev Lett. 1992 Sep 28;69(13):2013-2016.

CompuCell3D: Publications (last edited 2023-02-08 17:47:51 by JamesSluka)